CHEMICAL or THERMIT WELDING of RAILS

There are four methods employed for the welding of rails.

1. Electric Arc welding (Metal Arc welding)

2.Oxy – acetylene welding (gas pressure welding)

3.Flash Butt welding.

4.Chemical or Thermit welding.

Chemical or Thermit welding is widely used in renewal of rails. Generally the plant is mobile in nature and can be used at the site as well. This method involves the use of chemicals such as Aluminium and Iron Oxide. Heating of the two ends is done by the use of a furnace placed at the bottom of the rail joint. A mould is used to retain the liquid mixture and after the mixture solidifies, it is removed and the surface grinding is done.

In this method Aluminium and iron oxide are mixed in powder form and ignited.On ignition a chemical reaction takes place and produces  intense  heat  .This reaction is exothermic in nature .

The reaction is as follows.

Fe2O3  +  2 Al  = Al2 O3 +2 Fe + Heat

After the reaction Fe gets deposited in the gap of the rail ends which are preheated.

mould covering the rail joint.

portable plant and the pre- heating of rail joint

Aluminium and Iron Oxide mixture

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3D Max Rendering of a building-Easy Steps part II

CONTD FROM PART I

At the end of the part I you have completed the shell of the building. Now we need to assign materials to the shell.To do that just press M and open the material editor. From there you can easily drag  and drop the material you want to the relevant element.For example drag and drop a glass material for glass elements.

You can access the material editor from the top menu as well.

Material Editor Button

Now we need to cut the windows of the building to give it life. For that first create a box to the required window size. You can use the following buttons .

Create a Box

Now colon the window box . Move the box with Shift key.It will ask for number of copies.Give the required number.

cloned 6 window boxes

Now select all boxes and colon  them vertically .

all cloned boxes

then select the wall shell go compound objects,boolean pick aperand B and click on the box.you get a cut similar to window box size.

Then move your glass panel layer back to the position. Result is shown below.

Try these steps for any shape and apply correct materials.

If you need more detailed steps please drop a comment.i’ll be glad to help.

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3D Max Rendering of a building-Easy Steps part I

Suppose you are a civil engineer given the task of producing a 3D max rendering of a proposed structure and you know next to nothing on how to do that.That was exactly my position some time ago.After a lot of reading and following the tutorials finally i figured out a way to do that.In other words the easy way out.Accordingly this post describes how to save your day and it is not exactly methodology of a graphic designer.

First of all you need full and  complete Auto cad Drawings drawn to a scale of the structure.In my  example structure is a 23 story hotel building . You need all the floor plans drawn to the same scale & units  saved as blocks.

floor plan - ground floor to 10th floor

This is the Cad drawing from ground  floor to 10th  floor.As you can see here drawing is saved in 3 layers. The idea behind is to save time during the 3D maX  work.The outer boundary ,core and some interior walls are assigned to different layers.In addition to this i intend to use glass panels for outer walls.To save time in Max we have to do a trick here.Copy paste the wanted sections and put them in to a different layer which is shown in blue color in the following picture.Now Cad drawing is almost complete. Save it as a block. Hot key is W+ Enter .

floor plan with window panels in blue

After saving the drawing as a block go to 3D max- file -import- Autocad Drawing-open.A window appears saying lot of stuff.Just make sure it shows the same units and hit ok. Now you see your plan in 4 view ports as shown in the following picture.

 

Autocad File imported to 3Ds Max

Now select the perspective view port and hit the “maximize viewport toggle ” button on bottom  right hand corner.

Maximize Viewport toggle button

It gives a full screen view of the perspective viewport. Hit select object button on top.

select object button

Now click on the lift core.Go to “modify ” button modifier list and select extrude commend. 

give the amount as 3.7 m  (floor to floor height) .Then hit enter.You can see the magic happen in the viewport. All lift core done in 2 seconds.(well almost  😉 )

lift core

This is the concept.You can do the same to the other layers as well. At the end you will get something like this.

Contd on part 2

 


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Most controversial magazine covers through time !!

Time Magazine, April 8, 1966: Is God Dead?
This cover has been called the most controversial of all time. The related article concerned the “death of god movement” that had sprung up in the 1960’s. The cover and article enraged readers.              Time Magazine, April 8, 1966: Is God Dead?

Time Magazine, April 8, 1966: Is God Dead?

ime Magazine, January 2, 1939: Hitler as Man of the Year
This cover featured an elaborate illustration of Hitler playing “his hymn of hate in a desecrated cathedral while victims dangle on a St. Catherine’s wheel while the Nazi hierarchy looks on.” Baron Rudolph Charles von Ripper was a Catholic that fled Hitler’s Germany, and the artist of this disturbing piece. By 1938, Hitler had firmly seized power in Germany, taken over Austria and Czechoslovakia, and had been given a free hand in Eastern Europe by the English prime minister of the time, Neville Chamberlain. Time has had to defend this choice throughout history, and at the time defended it by stating that the “Man of the Year” was a title bestowed on the person who had most influenced events of the previous year.

 Time Magazine, January 2, 1939: Hitler as Man of the Year

Time Magazine, January 2, 1939: Hitler as Man of the Year

Life, November 26, 1965: War In Vietnam
Paul Schutzers captured this arresting image of a VietCong prisoner being taken prisoner by American forces during the Vietnam War. Photography and news coverage like this helped to turn the American public against the Vietnam war. While Schutzers was one of LIFE’s best photographers, he was killed on assignment during the Six-Day War of 1967 between Israel and its neighbouring states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria.

Life, November 26, 1965: War In Vietnam

Life, November 26, 1965: War In Vietnam

Esquire, April 1968: The Passion of Ali
This smart rendition of Muhammad Ali was created to illustrate his martyrdom to his cause after he refused to join the US military due to his religious beliefs and was subsequently stripped of his heavyweight boxing title. The piece was done after the same manner as “The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian”, a popular theme through medieval art but most recognizable in the painting by Andrea Mantegna.

 Esquire, April 1968: The Passion of Ali

Esquire, April 1968: The Passion of Ali

Playboy, October 1971: First Playboy African-American Woman
This cover was the first Playboy cover to feature an African-American woman. The model is Darine Stern and the photographer was Richard Fegley.

 Playboy, October 1971: First Playboy African-American Woman

Playboy, October 1971: First Playboy African-American Woman

National Lampoon, January 1973: If You Don’t Buy This Magazine…
While this cover didn’t do much more than make people laugh when it came out despite its violent overtones, Ronald G. Harris’ famous cover shot definitely raised a few eyebrows in pre-Photoshop days

National Lampoon, January 1973: If You Don’t Buy This Magazine…

National Lampoon, January 1973: If You Don’t Buy This Magazine…

Rolling Stone, January 22, 1981: John Lennon and Yoko Ono

Annie Leibovitz took this shot just hours before John Lennon was shot outside of his apartment building, the Dakota, in New York City on December 8, 1980. Leibovitz originally wanted to take the shot of Lennon alone but he insisted that his wife be in the pictures. This cover was named the most popular magazine cover of the past 40 years by the American Society of Magazine Publishers.

Vanity Fair, August 1991: Demi Moore, Pregnant and Nude
This cover was shot by celebrity photographer Annie Leibovitz and was decried as shameful and disgusting when it was released. Some stores sent back the issue, or only sold it with a brown paper covering the “offensive” image. It has spawned countless celebrity nude pregnancy shots done in the same fashion, and helped to launch Demi Moore’s career into the stratosphere.

The Economist, September 10, 1994: The Camel-Humping Issue
Obvious Black Eyed Peas references aside, this cover drew some fire for the UK-based magazine. The cover was printed for the North American market only.

The Economist, September 10, 1994: The Camel-Humping Issue

The Economist, September 10, 1994: The Camel-Humping Issue

Wired, June 1997: 101 Ways to Save Apple
When this magazine went to press, Steve Jobs had just rejoined Apple through Apple’s acquisition of his NeXT Software Inc. While the cover was a bit more pessimistic than the story it was meant to illustrate, it remains one of the top magazine covers of all time. We don’t think anyone would try to give Jobs advice today, but back then Mac fans would have done anything they could to help the ailing corporation.

Wired, June 1997: 101 Ways to Save Apple

Wired, June 1997: 101 Ways to Save Apple

Time, Dec 21, 1998: Devil Horns on Clinton
This was one of several magazine covers that featured Bill Clinton during the Monica Lewinsky scandal. In 1995, Lewinsky was an intern at the White House during Clinton’s presidency, and they had an intimate affair. The scandal broke when Lewinsky confided in a colleague in January of 1998. The scandal eventually resulted in Clinton’s impeachment. The top of the letter “M” in the Time masthead appear to be resting on the top of Clinton’s head as horns. The devil horns were written off by Time as an accident of masthead placement rather than a deliberate act.

Time, Dec 21, 1998: Devil Horns on Clinton

Time, Dec 21, 1998: Devil Horns on Clinton

The New Yorker, Sept. 24, 2001: Twin Towers in Silhouette
This cover was a graphical as well as an editorial success. The magazine succeeded in creating a fitting and classic memorial to the victims of the tragedy and the buildings themselves in true upscale New Yorker fashion. Covers editor Franoise Mouly created a testament to the Twin Towers that drew on the inspiration of Ad Reinhardt’s black-on-black paintings.

 The New Yorker, Sept. 24, 2001: Twin Towers in Silhouette

The New Yorker, Sept. 24, 2001: Twin Towers in Silhouette

Baby Talk, August 2006
While this image seems benign to most people who have been involved with a baby in one fashion or another, the cover was decried as obscene. Even though moms made up the target demographic, a survey of 4000 of them turned up the fact that 25% had a negative response. One mother actually shredded the magazine so that her 13-year old son couldn’t see it. Not that he likely noticed; he was probably on the computer downloading porn watching tips from Kanye.

Baby Talk, August 2006

Baby Talk, August 2006

The New Yorker, July 21, 2008: The Obama Couple Satire

This cover by famous New Yorker cartoonist Barry Blitt was heavily criticized by both the McCain and Obama camps during the 2008 US election. While the piece was meant to be a satire of allegations lobbed at the couple by their detractors, its inopportune appearance during a campaign didn’t have Obama’s supporters laughing as hard as the magazine intended.

 The New Yorker, July 21, 2008: The Obama Couple Satire

The New Yorker, July 21, 2008: The Obama Couple Satire

OK Magazine, June 2009: Michael Jackson Death Photo
Fans were upset over the magazine’s decision to publish this photo. Sarah Ivens, editorial director, said that the cover decision was made since they wanted to stand out from all of the tribute covers that were dominating the stands that week. Jackson died on June 25, 2009 after being given a cocktail of drugs by his physician.

 OK Magazine, June 2009: Michael Jackson Death Photo

OK Magazine, June 2009: Michael Jackson Death Photo